MATBUD’2018
8th Scientific-Technical Conference on Material Problems in Civil Engineering

2011

Jan MAŁOLEPSZY
UTILIZATION OF FLUIDAL-BED COMBUSTION ASH FOR BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION

In the paper physiochemical properties and phase composition of fluidal bed combustion fly and bottom ashes are presented. It was shown that investigated ashes exhibit some substantial differences comparing to conventional fly ash. In fluidal bed ashes both fly as well as bottom one, there is no glassy phase, instead, dehydroxylated clayey minerals, mainly metakaolinite are present. Crystalline phase is mainly anhydrite II (CaSO4) and free lime (CaO). It was proven, that above mentioned additives properly prepared (homogenized) can be very valuable raw materials in many building materials production technologies. Cements of CEM II group used as an additive in readymix as well as autoclaved aerated concrete can be considered as one of such materials. Moreover, they can be used for special cements, as well as grouting slurries. Above mentioned additives can be also incorporated into lime-sand materials. Obtained results indicate that in case of all above mentioned technologies, it is possible to reduce the consumption of energy by decreasing the utilization of expensive and energy-consuming binding materials like cement and lime. Another important issue is environment protection due to CO2 emission reduction. Building materials containing fly or bottom ash from fluidal – bed combustion in many case posses better properties, comparing to reference materials.

Anna BENEŠOVÁ Jan VANĚREK Rostislav DROCHYTKA
CONSTRUCTION APPLICATION OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES AND POSSIBILITIES OF USING WASTE AND SECONDARY RAW MATERIALS ADMIXTURE

This article describes a development of wood-plastic composite enriched with an admixture of chosen waste and secondary raw materials. First part of the article is focused on characterization of the material that is already produced in factories, on its physical and chemical aspects and utilization for constructional use. Second part is a search of possible waste and secondary raw materials that can not only reduce the price of final product, but also improve negative properties, that are typical for wood-plastic composites. Last part of the article deals with the practical testing of samples, prepared from optimized mixtures for chosen type of construction system, and the evaluation of acquired results.

Miroslav BRODŇAN
EVALUATION OF CARBONATION DEPTH AND CORROSION LOSS OF REINFORCEMENT

In this paper the results of complex diagnostic of two reinforced concrete bridges are presented particularly relating to the concrete carbonation and reinforcement corrosion. Values of measured depths of concrete carbonation and corrosion losses of reinforcement were consequently compared with available mathematical models of time behaviors of concrete carbonation and reinforcement corrosion.

Lucyna DOMAGAŁA
SPECIFICITY OF THE INTERFACIAL TRANSITION ZONE BETWEEN POROUS AGGREGATE AND PASTE IN LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE

The issue of the structure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) in lightweight concrete with sintered fly ash aggregate is presented in this paper. The SEM research made possible to state that when aggregate of high porosity is used, even in the case of its pre-saturation, ITZ does not reveal neither higher porosity nor higher portlandite content in comparison to the paste located far from the aggregate surface. Moreover the research does not confirm the theory that cement paste is not able to penetrate into pores of aggregate when it was initially saturated with water.

Lucyna DOMAGAŁA
FREEZE AND THAW RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE WITH SINTERED FLY ASH AGGREGATE

The paper is focused on the issue of the resistance of structural lightweight concrete to cyclic freezing and thawing. The strength of the cement matrix and the initial moisture of lightweight aggregate were variables considered in the carried out freeze and thaw resistance tests. The research showed that, despite incomparable lower strength and considerable higher water absorption of used aggregate in comparison to normal weight one, lightweight concrete may reveal satisfactory freeze and thaw resistance. Nevertheless to obtain high freeze and thaw resistance of lightweight concrete it is necessary to ensure both appropriately low water-cement ratio and limitation of initial aggregate moisture.

Jacek DOMSKI
SHRINKAGE AND CREEP OF FINE AGGREGATE CONCRETE WITH STEEL FIBRES

This report presents the results of experiments on shrinkage and creep of cylindrical ele-ments made of plain concrete and fine aggregate concrete containing steel fibres (30/0,55 or 50/0,80). Experimental tests were carried out on a cylindrical samples featuring diameter of 150 mm and height of 300 mm. The shrinkage and creep test was carried out over a period of one year. The results of tests were compared with theoretical calculations based on two Polish Standards.

Rostislav DROCHYTKA Božena VACENOVSKÁ
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW BUILDING MATERIAL BY HAZARDOUS WASTE SOLIDIFICATION

Worldwide problem of hazardous waste production and its effective minimization are serious problems of the present time. This paper summarizes the results of the project that deals with the solidification of different types of hazardous wastes in order to find a suitable hazardous waste and appropriate solidification ways to ensure that solidificate`s properties will allow its further use in the civil engineering. The paper focuses primarily on one type of the hazardous waste – sludge from biological treatment of industrial wastewater containing hazardous substances – this waste was proved to be the most suitable hazardous waste during the research laboratory works. For the solidification of hazardous waste as the main solidification agent secondary raw materials – fluid and classical fly ash were profitably chosen. This paper presents the results of laboratory examination, including the solidification verification on the prototype of solidification line.

Marek GAWLICKI Wojciech WONS
MULTICOMPONENT HYDRAULIC ROAD BINDERS CONTAINING FLY ASH FROM FLUIDIZED BED

Draft standard prEN 13282-2:2010 is dedicated to hydraulic road binders containing fly ash from fluidized bed as a one of main components of these binders. Previous standards allowed only the use of conventional fly ash in hydraulic road binders. The aim of this research was conformity assessment and classification of several hydraulic road binders according to prEN 13282-2:2010. The binders contained from 10 to 40% of Portland cement clinker and from 30 to 90% of fly ash from fluidized bed. The studies have shown that depending on the composition the binders according to the draft standard are eligible for the class from N1 to N4.

Wiesława GŁODKOWSKA Janusz KOBAKA
MODEL OF STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITE

Within the article a mathematical model of a steel reinforced fine aggregate concrete was proposed. The model was derived based on ad-hoc and non-destructive tests. Regression equations describing changes in selected properties of the composite, based on the speed of ultrasonic wave propagation within the composite as well as the amperage of the induced electric current were formulated. The mechanical-physical properties of the steel fiber reinforced fine aggregate composite under study and other similar materials can be assessed by means of the model, which utilizes non-destructive testing. The model was verified in practice and the calculated results were shown to be highly compatible with data supplied by the manufacturer of industrial flooring.

Jacek GOŁASZEWSKI Aleksandra KOSTRZANOWSKA
INFLUENCE OF SOME COMPOSITION FACTORS ON RHEOLOGY OF HIGH PERFORMACE SELF-COMPACTING CONCTRETE

The significance analysis of the fundamental composition factors on the rheological properties of mixture for HPSCC as well as a mathematical model influences the composition on the rheological properties of mixture for HPSCC are presented and discussed in the paper. Rheological parameters are measured using rheometrical test (BT2 rheometer) and technical test (slump flow). The rheological properties of mixture are sufficiently well described by the Bingham model.

Stefania GRZESZCZYK Bartłomiej SKALIŃSKI
EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE UNDERWATER SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE MIX

This paper presents results of an investigation of the influence of mineral additives in cement, fly ash, silica fume and blast furnace slag on the washout resistance and rheological properties of underwater self-compacting concrete mix. It was shown that an increase of surface area of mineral additives in cement reduces the washout of underwater self-compacting concrete mix, and therefore the pH factor of solutions obtained in an washout test is lower. It was found that the rheological properties of concrete mixes made with cement containing different types of mineral additives are heavily influenced by Anti-Washout Admixture, whereas the effect of mineral additives in cement on the rheological parameters is less significant.

Rudolf HELA Lenka BODNÁROVÁ Jaroslav VÁLEK
PROPERTIES OF NEW TYPES OF PORTLAND-LIMESTONE CEMENT AND PORTLAND-COMPOSITE CEMENT (“GREEN CEMENT”) AND VERIFICATION OF THEIR APPLICABILITY FOR CONCRETE PRODUCTION

Current production of cement loads environment considerably and demands too much energy. International protocols require production of cement to decrease emissions of greenhouse gasses produced during firing of clinker. Mixed cements present an opportunity of decreasing ecological, energetic and economical demands of production of cement binders. The paper deals with testing properties of new types of cements – Portland cements mixed with lime stone. Compatibility of Portland-limestone cement and Portland-composite cement for production of concrete is mentioned as well as rheological properties of fresh cement pastes measured with rotary viscometer at different ages of paste. The paper states applicability of mentioned composite Portland cements in concrete and results of tests of physico-mechanical properties of concrete with this type of cement.

Elżbieta HORSZCZARUK Piotr BRZOZOWSKI
INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH FROM FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UNDERWATER CONCRETE

The paper contains test results of physical and mechanical properties of underwater concretes. In these underwater concretes some cement was substituted by fluidal ashes formed as a result of hard coal combustion, in weight proportion of: 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The CEM I 42,5 R cement was the basic binder in the underwater concrete examined. The test results of set underwater concretes show generally a positive effect of addition of fluidal ashes on the analyzed characteristics.

Petr HUŇKA Karel JUNG Karel KOLÁŘ Pavel REITERMAN Stanislav ŘEHÁČEK Miroslav VOKÁČ Jiří KOLÍSKO
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH - STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Random behavior of concrete C45/55 XF2 used for prefabricated pre-stressed bridge beams is described on the basis of evaluating of vast set of measurements. Detailed statistical analysis is carried out on 133 cylinders with sizes 150×300 mm, produced from October 2010 to November 2010. Only one worker took all specimens during the whole period and the following measuring of modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of concrete was carried out in Klokner Institute laboratories. The measuring takes place at the age of 28 days, only one testing machine with the same capping method is used. Suitable theoretical models of division are determined on the basis of tests in good congruence, with the use of χ2 and Bernstein’s criterion.

Wioletta JACKIEWICZ-REK Paweł ŁUKOWSKI
EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE OF CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF MORTARS AND CONCRETES

The high temperature of the materials used for manufacturing of concrete can affect the technological properties of the concrete mix, and, in consequence, also the properties of the hardened concrete. The aim of the investigation is determination of the effects of using the cement with the high temperature for production of the mortars and concretes. The results of the first stage of research, dealing with cement mortars, have been presented in the paper. The analysis of the results makes possible to give the preliminary conclusions and proper design the testing of the concrete mix. This shall enable to formulate the general conclusions on the influence of the high temperature of cement on the properties of the building cement composites.

Wioletta JACKIEWICZ-REK Piotr WOYCIECHOWSKI
EFFECT OF FLY ASH CONTENT IN AERATED CONCRETE ON THE CARBONATION

The aim of research presented in this paper is to assess the impact of aeration on the course of the carbonation of concrete with fly ash. The influence of fly ash on the carbonation process in standard accelerated conditions and also influence of the level of air content in concrete on carbonation were analyzed. The main conclusions state that aeration intensifies the course of carbonation, and the effect of reducing the carbonation by fly ash sealing action is limited to a moderate ash content.

Grzegorz KNOR
INVERSE IDENTIFICATION OF THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THE EARLY AGE CONCRETE WITH CALCIUM FLY ASH

The article presents an alternative to calorimetric tests procedure of determination of thermal parameters of concrete with calcium fly ash at early age by the inverse modeling. In IPPT PAN was constructed one-dimensional hydration form with system of sensors to monitoring temperature of concrete mixture during curing. Based on the measured temperature distributions the inverse problem, defined as an optimization problem, is solved. As a result, the thermal diffusivity and the heat of hardening were determined for a series of mixtures as a function of both time and temperature of the mortar. These results can be used to model solid elements made from tested concretes.

Jan KUBIK
SATURATION OF SURFACE

In the work the process of saturation of a surface with coating ensuring protection against external factors will be analyzed. This situation can occur during renovation of paintings and spraying of protective hydrophobic coatings.

Jan KUBIK Kamil PAWLIK
ESTIMATION OF THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD COMPONENTS

In the paper, the method for estimating the rheological properties of early and late wood is presented. The viscoelastic layered bar is used. Also the results of the experiment creep wooden beam in bending are presented. The tests were carried out for different layer systems.

Barbara KUCHARCZYKOVÁ Petr DANĚK Ladislav BARÁK Ondřej POSPÍCHAL Petr MISÁK
INFLUENCE OF POROUS AGGREGATE CONTENT ON THE VOLUME CHANGES OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE

The experiments were focused on determination of the influence of the porous aggregate content on the final rheological and physico-mechanical properties of the manufactured concrete. Three types of concrete were manufactured. They differed only in volume and type of the coarse aggregate of 4-8 mm fraction. The first concrete LC100 contained 100% of the coarse porous aggregate. The second concrete LC50 contained 50% of the coarse porous and 50% of heavyweight aggregate. The last concrete OC was prepared from the heavyweight aggregate of 4-8 mm fraction. The remaining concrete components were the same in all three cases. In particular, the results of the concrete volume changes measurement are presented in the paper.

Mariusz MAŚLAK Anna TKACZYK
DETERIORATION OF HARDNESS OF CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL AFTER FIRE EXPOSURE

The problem of the credibility of the assessment of steel tensile strength as well as of steel yield point basing on the non-destructive examination of material hardness when considered constructional steel has been previously subjected to fire exposure is presented and widely discussed. The authors underline the fact that the correlation formulae giving the approximate relation between those properties and commonly used for this purpose if typical environmental conditions are taken into account, should be treated only as a hipothesis when the fire incident has occured and the ability of further exploitation of analysed structural element is evaluated. The reason of significant uncertainties in this field is the imminence of the occurrence of local decarburization of member surface layer and, as a consequence, of the decrease of material hardness in examined zone. The measurements performed by the authors and described in detail in this article seem to be sufficient confirmation of such statement.

Adam MATUSIEWICZ
THE INFLUENCE OF SOME HEAVY METALS OXIDES ON THE CLINKERISATION

This article tries to estimate the influence of zinc, copper and lead oxides addition on the formation and properties of clinker. A model raw meal, made of natural minerals, was doped with oxides and its sintering process was examined. Concentrations and localisation of added oxides in the sinters was determined as well as the differences in phase composition of obtained clinkers. Results confirm nearly quantitative volatilisation of lead oxide in temperatures below clinkerisation, which causes its negligible activity in this system. Copper and zinc oxides are incorporated nearly quantitatively and show mineralising effect – they lower the clinkering temperature, affecting also the phase composition of the clinker thus obtained.

Teresa MOŻARYN
DURABILITY OF BUILDING PRODUCTS AND REQUIREMENT OF SUSTAINABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES

This papers refers to the testing and assessment of building products for the purpose of European Assessment Documents (EAD) in the aspects of the sustainable use of natural resources. Construction Products Regulation (CPR) defines a new basic requirement No.7 „Sustainable use of natural resources”. Durability of facility construction and building products is included in this requirement.

Paweł MURZYN Józef STOLECKI
MODIFICATION OF PROPERTIES OF CARBONIFEROUS CLAY SHALE FROM LZW FOR USE IN CLINKER BRICK PRODUCTION

Carboniferous clay shales from LZW region is used, among others for the production of ceramic bricks. The shale occurs in beds of coals, and is mined together with coal and after separation from coal, as waste rock is stored on landfills. Much content of organic matter (carbon residue) and also iron compounds in the shale causes difficulties in obtaining products with the necessary physical parameters, and especially their look. One way to improve the properties of the products produced from the carboniferous shale is to apply the initial heat treatment of the natural slate. The paper shows how to calcine the shale and presents properties of raw materials as well as the properties of materials obtained from both types of slate with mineral additives.

Eva NAVRÁTILOVÁ Pavla ROVNANÍKOVÁ
LIME WATER AS A CONSOLIDANT OF LIME PLASTERS

The article deals with the consolidation of lime plaster by lime water. An effect of the lime water application on the consolidation of the lime mortars was monitored on base of evaluation of the strength characteristics and the content of calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. It was found that the application of the lime water led to the successful consolidation of the lime plasters.

Małgorzata NIZIURSKA Paweł PICHNIARCZYK
HYDROXYPROPYLMETHYLCELLULOSE VISCOSITY AND PROPERTIES OF ADHESIVE CEMENT MORTARS FOR TILES

Besides basic materials as cement, gypsum and aggregates, factors influencing on properties and quality of building mortars are modifying additives. In the present paper problems connected with cellulose ethers application are discussed. Testing results determining hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity influence for standard and technological properties of adhesive mortars used for tiles are presented. Results of estimation of methylcellulose viscosity effect on microstructure of hardened adhesive cement mortars are also presented. The quoted results indicate conclusively influence of methylcellulose viscosity on particular standard features of products and can be valuable source of information for producers of such building mortars.

Wiesława NOCUŃ-WCZELIK Grzegorz ŁÓJ
LIMESTONE POWDERS AS ADDITIVES TO CEMENT

Blended cements type CEM II/A-LL and CEM II/B-LL were produced using the limestone additives from different sources. The effect of limestone powder materials mixed with basic Portland cement is pronounced particularly as the compressive strength of cement mortars at higher percentage of additive is concerned. The level 15% is critical when the production of Portland limestone type CEM II 42,5R is considered and the level 30% limestone, as related to the possible cement CEM II 32,5N manufacturing.

Aneta NOWAK-MICHTA
LOSS OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AS RESULT OF AIR ENTRAINING OF FLY ASH CONCRETES

Influence fly ash quality and mixture proportions with their addiction on loss of compressive strength as result of air entraining is analysed in this paper. Analyses were made on the base compressive strength for 56 air-entrained and no air-entrained fly ash concretes with three types of fly ashes (category loss of ignition A, B & C). Research program showed that as the air entraining increase in concrete mix, the loss of compressive strength, as the result of air-entraining, also increase. Quantity influence of no air-entrained compressive strength, the air-entraining and w/s ratio on the compressive strength of air entrained concretes for individual ashes were described with mathematical model which can constitute the base for appropriate optimization of concrete composition.

Zdzisława OWSIAK Wioletta GRZMIL
THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITION THE BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON DURABILITY OF THE NEAR SURFACE CONCRETE OF THE SCC

This paper presents results of laboratory tests of the SCC concrete with blast furnace slag. The concrete subjected of carbonation process, and then freezing-thawing. Were also performed surface absorbability. In addition, studies were extended to carbonated and noncarbonated paste. The objective this study were determine the effects carbonation on the microstructure. Increased destruction of concrete subjected to carbonation process.

Paweł PICHNIARCZYK Grzegorz MALATA Henryk SZELĄG
THE PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE FROM GYPSUM FIBER AND POLYMER

There is possibility to obtain composite materials from needle shaped gypsum or anhydrite and polymer matrix. These materials exhibit some beneficial properties, especially in anhydrite needles / polysiloxane matrix version. Particularly the thermal conductivity coefficient and resistance to water or elevated temperatures, in context of potential application are promising. The parameters of gypsum fiber – polymer composites are somewhat worse than those characterizing traditional mineral wool, however these materials show potential for further optimization of properties.

Waldemar PICHÓR Jadwiga SŁOMKA
PROPERTIES OF CEMENT COMPOSITES WITH EXPANDED GRAPHITE

This paper presents the results of investigation the properties of cement based composites with expanded graphite addition. The mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of pastes and mortars are presented. Electrical and thermo-electrical properties are investigated. Addition of expanded graphite led to detoriation of mechanical properties but cement-based composites received possibility of reaction on the changes of temperature and stresses. The percolation threshold of expanded graphite in cement matrix is about five times smaller than in comparison of typical graphite powder. Cement mortars with expanded graphite are promising multifunctional material.

Tomasz PUŻAK Marcin SOKOŁOWSKI Damian DZIUK
COMPOSITE CEMENT CEM V/A (S-V) 32,5R-LH – PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN BUILDING INDUSTRY

Cements with mineral additives (CEM II; CEM III; CEM IV; CEM V) are nowadays becoming more widely used in the national construction practice. The production of such cements, except for the effective reduction of production costs by the substitution of a part of Portland clinker with mineral additives, leads to the acquisition of binders with increased and high resistance to aggressive media attack. Hereby article presents the properties of composite cement CEM V/A (S-V) 32,5R - LH with particular direction of use.

Zdzisław PYTEL
INVESTIGATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF HYDROGARNETS PRESENCE ON THE PROPERTIES OF SAND-LIME BRICKS

Paper presents the results of investigations on the properties of sand-lime bricks prepared in laboratory using raw material mixes modified in order to ensure proper conditions for hydrogarnet formation. The presence of hydrogarnet influences the mechanical properties of final materials. Effects of hydrogarnet presence within the material is not always clear. In order to clarify the action of hydrogarnets on the strength of sand-lime bricks some tests were conducted and their results are presented within the present paper. Raw materials mixes used in experiments were composed in order to obtain hydrogarnets of the C3AS3 – C3AH6 series. Compositions corresponded to general formula Ca3Al2 (SiO4)3-x(OH)4x with “x” varying within the range between 0.0 and 3.0 (0.0; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0). Due to “x” variations, C/S, C/(A + S) and A/(A + S) molar ratios were also varying within the ranges 1.0 ÷ 3.0; 0.75 ÷ 1.5 and 0.25 ÷ 0.5 respectively. Final materials were characterized from the point of view of basic technical properties as well as selected structural and microstructural features.

Stanislav ŘEHÁČEK Ivo ŠIMŮNEK Petr HUŇKA
EFFECT OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE SPECIMEN ON IMPACT RESISTANCE OF STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE

Fiber-reinforced composite materials are becoming important in many areas of technological application. In addition to the static load, structures may be stressed with short-term dynamic loads or even dynamic impact loads during their lifespan. Dynamic effects can be significant especially for thin-walled shell structures and barrier constructions. It is clear that reinforced concrete with fibers has a positive impact on increasing the resistance to impact loads. However, the assessment of the increase of this resistance has not been sufficiently verified experimentally. Laboratory load tests, aiming not only to determine the appropriate shape of test specimens, but also to evaluate and select appropriate ways to support the test specimens and first results of impact loads tests are presented.

Pavel REITERMAN Michaela KOSTELECKÁ Karel KOLÁŘ Tomáš KLEČKA Petr HUŇKA
THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE STRUCTURE ON SCALING RESISTANCE

Surfacing, concrete mixture composition and curing are of great importance for the concrete surface resistance. The paper introduces an experimental program focused on the monitoring of de-icing salts resistance, depending on surface morphology. Quantitative evaluation of the concrete surface was performed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy, which is the new generation of optical systems that are able to make all measurements in 3D resolution. These measurements are supplemented by results of mechanical tests and measurements of surface absorption.

Zbigniew RUSIN Grzegorz STELMASZCZYK
EXAMPLE OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES FOR WATERTIGHT CONCRETE USING PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

There are no uniform requirements for the selection of aggregates for watertight concrete. The use of certain methods of supporting the classification, less common, but based on reliable assumptions may help in diagnostics of the aggregate source. Their usefulness has been confirmed in practice by observing the structure in operation. These methods include the so-called indicator PN (Petrographic Number). The paper compares the results of the "classic" tests with the indicator of PN prepared on the basis of a petrographic examination of aggregate.

Hana ŠIMONOVÁ Barbara KUCHARCZYKOVÁ Zbyněk KERŠNER
EFFECT OF CONCRETE SPECIMENS’ AGE TO THE VALUES OF BASIC MECHANICAL-FRACTURE PARAMETERS

This paper presents the values of basic mechanical-fracture parameters of concrete specimens (strength class C30/37): compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, effective fracture toughness and specific fracture energy. Three-point bending tests of specimens (100X100X400 mm) with the central edge notch were performed to determine mentioned fracture characteristics of material. Fragments of specimens obtained after performing three-point bending tests were used to determine the values of splitting tensile strength and compressive strength. The cubes with length of the edge 150 mm were also used to determine the values of compressive strength. The age of specimens was 28, 98 and 159 days. The values of mentioned parameters obtained from the static fracture tests will be used as a correct starting point to evaluate fatigue parameters of concrete.

Aleksandra SKOREK Henryk SZELĄG
ROMAN CEMENT’S APPLICATION IN RENOVATION OF HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE

A huge number of architectural objects erected in XIXth and in the beginning of XXth century was decorated with plasters and stuccowork made from Roman cement, a highly hydraulic binder patented in 1796 by James Parker. Thanks to the invention of Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Glass and Building Materials Division in Krakow now there is a possibility to renovate them properly. Conservators and builders, who are not afraid of some difficulties in Roman cement’s application, will have an opportunity to bring back these objects to the times of their splendour.

Barbara SŁOMKA-SŁUPIK Adam ZYBURA
THE EXAMINATION OF THE CORROSION PROGRESS IN SULPHATERESISTANT CEMENT PASTE TREATED BY THE SOLUTION OF NH4Cl

In the work have shown the results of the cement paste corrosion examination carried out by the use of different research tools. It was found, that this way of recognizing processes, have taken place, is very helpful. Were used X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and potentiometric analysis.

Joanna J. SOKOŁOWSKA Andrzej GARBACZ
CALCIUM FLY ASHES INFLUENCE ON POLYMER CONCRETES CHEMICAL RESISTANCE

The paper discusses the influence of calcium fly ash, the by-product of coal fluidized bed combustion, used as a microfiller in polymer concrete, on chemical resistance of such composites. The study was designed on the basis of statistical planning of the experiment, where one of the input variables was the degree of substitution of traditional microfiller with waste product. Taking into account the influence of the type of resin on composite chemical resistance, specimens of concretes with two binders – vinyl ester and polyester were tested. The obtained results allowed to designate the limit of calcium fly ash content in polymer concrete, above which the resistance of composites to chemically aggressive agents starts to decrease.

Nadezda STEVULOVA Eva TERPAKOVA Lucia KIDALOVA Sergej PRIGANC Adriana ESTOKOVA Marian HELCMAN
HEMP AS POTENTIAL COMPONENT IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

Production of building materials cause significant pollution, use a lot of energy and non-renewable resources. One of the approaches to sustainable construction is look for alternative materials of construction which significantly reduce resource consumption, provide energy efficiency without causing pollution, damaging health and eco-systems. Nowadays, composites are the subject of research, specifically in building materials preparing for their installation in construction due to their many advantages. This paper is devoted to utilization of natural renewable materials (hemp shives) in lightweight composites preparing. The experimental research is oriented comparison influence of thermal loading on composites with regard to mechanical, thermal and structural properties.

Maciej SUCHODOŁA
ESTIMATION OF UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMET IN LABORATORY TESTS

The paper describe estimation methods of uncertainty of measurement in the laboratory test. A and B types of estimation, presented in the paper, are currently used in order to estimate of uncertainty of measurement.

Janusz SZWABOWSKI Beata ŁAŹNIEWSKA-PIEKARCZYK
THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZERS (SP), AIR-ENTRAINING (AEA), ANTI-FOAMING (AFA) AND VISCOSITY MODIFYING (VMA) ADMIXTURES ON POROSITY CHARACTERISTICS, COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND FROST RESISTANCE OF SCC

The influence of SP, AEA, AFA, VMA on air-content, workability and compressive strength, frost-resistance and porosity characteristics according to PN-EN 480-11 of hardened self-compacting concrete (SCC) was discussed in the paper,. The research results proved that the investigated admixtures have significant influence on tested concrete mix and hardened SCC properties.

Ewelina TKACZEWSKA Maciej SITARZ
EFFECT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF GLASS IN SLILICEOUS FLY ASHES ON THEIR POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY

This paper presents effect of chemical composition and structure of glass in siliceous fly ashes on their pozzolanic activity. The synthetic fly ash glass of different chemical composition were analysed. The glasses were obtained by melting and cooling of raw materials, when the cooling process was carried out quickly and slowly. The glass structure was examined by Middle Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR). The pozzolanic activity of glass was analysed by chemical method according to ASTM C379-65T standard. The results showed that there are two types of bridging bonds of Si-O-Si and Si-O-Al in glass. The aluminium ions form [AlO4]5- tetrahedra and [AlO6]9- octahedra. The share of aluminium ions in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination depends on the aluminium saturation index (ASI), parameter defined as a ratio Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O+2CaO). The activity of glass increases with value of Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O+2CaO) ratio in glass.

Jerzy WAWRZEŃCZYK Adam KŁAK Mateusz STAŃCZYK
CORRELATION CURVES USED IN NON – DESTRUCTIVE ASSESMENT OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IN CONCRETE WITH SCHMIDT’S REBOUND HAMMER

In this report the results of laboratory tests have been presented in order to create function relationships, which could be helpful to assess compressive strength achieved in indirect method using Schmidt’s rebound hammer. Examination deal with concretes made with basalt coarse aggregate and cement CEMI 42,5. Afterwards the influence of basic curve correction methods and ITB functions with ratio ∆f or Ck for similar calculation results with results achieved from created scaling curve. Lower results dispersion have been achieved with correction of basic functions with Ck ratio.

Jerzy WAWRZEŃCZYK Anna KOTWA
POSSIBILITY OF ESTIMATING THE ENDURANCE ON GRIP FOR HELP OF FUNCTION OF MATURITY

Paper deals with concrete issues of performing works in lower temperatures. Activation rates were determined to cement the possibility of estimating the compressive strength of concrete maturing in varying conditions. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the guidelines in ASTM C 1074. The scope of investigation included the implementation of eight series of mortars after 18 samples with dimensions of 0.04 x0.04x0.16m, and two series of 14 concrete samples with dimensions of 0.1x0.1x0.1m.

Piotr ZAPOLSKI
THE IMPACT OF NICKEL ON THE CLINKERING PROCESS AND CEMENT PROPERTIES

In this paper obtained by different research teams, the influence of nickel on the clinkering process and cement properties. Tests were performed on pure clinker phases obtained in the laboratory or on different terms of use of raw materials, to which was added in the form of nickel oxides. Obtained results showed that the addition of nickel causes changes mainly in the process clinkering of pure C3S, slightly affects the process of hydration of pure clinker phases and in the clinkers obtained from the raw meal rich in Mg new phase MgNiO2 is formed. However, nickel additions do not significantly affect the hardness of clinker or cement properties.

Krzysztof ZIELIŃSKI Maria RATAJCZAK Laura PAWLIK
AN ATTEMPT TO IDENTIFY AND DETERMINE SBS CONTENT IN BITUMEN USING IR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

The article examines the possibility of identification (both qualitative and quantitative) of SBS content in modified bitumen, based on the analysis of its IR spectrum. Bitumen 160/220 and its modified varieties with 3, 6, 9, and 12% SBS content were subject to tests. The tests were performed using a spectrometer. Characteristic peaks appearing only in bi-tumen containing copolymer SBS are observed on the graphs of spectra obtained from the tests. For the chosen range of wave numbers there is a clear correlation between the height of the peaks and the amount of modifier used. The achieved test results make us believe that IR spectroscopy may become a method used for the analysis of quantitative and quali-tative composition of bitumen used for production of various types of waterproofing materials.